The pituitary gland is responsible for producing follicle-stimulating hormones, and this hormone can control ovarian and testicular functioning. A deficiency can cause infertility and subfertility in both men and women.
The stimulating follicle hormone (FSH) is a steroid hormone.
Both the luteinizing hormone and the hormone that stimulates the formation of the follicles are gonadotrophic hormones, and the pituitary gland releases both into the bloodstream. When it comes to pubertal development and ovulation, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a key player. During ovulation, an egg is released from one of the ovarian follicles stimulated by this hormone, and it also boosts the production of oestradiol. The Sertoli cells in the testes of males are stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone, a hormone produced by the ovaries (spermatogenesis).
What mechanisms exist for regulating follicle stimulating hormone?
Ovarian and testicular hormones govern the synthesis and ovulation of follicle-stimulating hormones, affecting the ovulation cycle. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is the name given to this system. This hormone activates the anterior pituitary in the hypothalamus to create follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones. Follicle-stimulating hormone, once completed, travels to the testes and ovaries via the bloodstream and binds to receptors. Follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone both work through this system to regulate the ovaries and the testes, respectively.
The hypothalamus senses a drop in hormone levels after a woman’s menstrual cycle. In turn, the pituitary gland produces more follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, which are released into the circulation by these cells. Ovarian development is stimulated by increasing the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The follicle cells produce more oestradiol and inhibin due to this expansion. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone are less likely to be released when these hormones are produced. As the follicle expands and more estrogen is removed from the follicles, it causes a surge in the release of an egg from the mature follicle (ovulation) by boosting the luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, which in turn causes the release of an egg.
Follicle-stimulating hormone is released in the first part of each menstrual cycle, encouraging follicular growth in the ovary. Ruptured ovaries produce significant quantities of progesterone in the corpus luteum once ovulation occurs, preventing the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from being released. The corpus luteum breaks down near the end of the cycle, progesterone production drops, and the next menstrual cycle begins when follicle-stimulating hormone levels increase.
Testosterone and inhibin, two hormones generated by the testes, control follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis in men. A boost in testosterone levels is recognized by nerve cells in the hypothalamus, which decreases the release of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. When testosterone levels drop, the opposite happens. A “negative feedback” mechanism is used to keep testosterone levels stable. Inhibin production is also controlled similarly. However, this is sensed by cells in the anterior pituitary gland rather than the hypothalamus.
Are there any side effects from having too much FSH?
A high amount of follicle-stimulating hormone is usually a symptom of an ovarian or testicular dysfunction. The pituitary gland’s feedback control of follicle-stimulating hormone production is lost if the gonads fail to produce adequate oestrogen, testosterone, or inhibin. FSH and LH levels rise as a result. If you have primary ovarian or testicular failure, you may have hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism. Men with Klinefelter’s syndrome and women with Turner syndrome suffer from this.
At this point in women’s lives, oestrogen and progesterone production diminishes, and the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels rise naturally.
It is extremely rare for pituitary disorders to boost the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormones. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome can occur in women in rare cases when the typical negative feedback loop is overridden. Many symptoms can indicate this, including increased ovulation and a potentially dangerous accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, which can cause pain in the pelvic area.